Interventional Radiology

Featured Services

We cover a variety of medical procedures.

DSA Conventional Angiogram
Conventional angiography, or more specifically digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be used for both diagnostic and interventional angiography.  Its high spatial and temporal resolution have maintained DSA as a very important tool.
In conventional angiography the patient is catheterized, usually via the common femoral artery in the groin.  Wires, catheters, clot retrieval devices, stents and anuerysm coils can be passed to the vessel of interest with this access.



Embolization refers to the passage and lodging of an embolus (clot) within the bloodstream. It may be pathological (in which sense it is also called embolism), for example a pulmonary embolism, or therapeutic, as a hemostatic treatment for bleeding or as a treatment for some types of cancer by deliberately blocking blood vessels to starve the tumor cells.

Endovascular Coiling

Coil embolization is a minimally invasive procedure to treat an aneurysm by filling it with material that closes off the sac and reduces the risk of rupturing or rebleeding. It is performed from “within” the artery (endovascular) through a steerable catheter inserted into the blood stream at the groin and guided to the brain. Tiny coils, glue, or mesh stents are used to promote clotting and close off the aneurysm. Coils accomplish from the inside what a surgical clip would accomplish from the outside: they stop blood from flowing into the aneurysm but allow blood to flow freely through the normal arteries.

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Dialysis Catheter Placement
Temporary Catheter

Temporary catheter (ContiCath) is a procedure used  for the treatment of temporary, reversible, postoperative urinary retention.

Perm Catheter

A permacath is a piece of plastic tubing ,the permacath has a cuff that holds the catheter in place and acts as a barrier to infection. The cuff is underneath the skin and cannot be seen.

Port-A- Catheter

A device used to draw blood and give treatments, including intravenous fluids, drugs, or blood transfusions. The port is placed under the skin, usually in the chest. It is attached to a catheter (a thin, flexible tube) that is guided (threaded) into a large vein above the right side of the heart called the superior vena cava. A port-a-cath may stay in place for many weeks or months. A needle is inserted through the skin into the port to draw blood or give fluids.

PICC Line Placement

A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC or PIC line), less commonly called a percutaneous indwelling central catheter, is a form of intravenous access that can be used for a prolonged period of time (e.g., for long chemotherapy regimens, extended antibiotic therapy, or total parenteral nutrition) or for administration of substances that should not be done peripherally. It is a catheter that enters the body through the skin (percutaneously) at a peripheral site, extends to the superior vena cava (a central venous trunk), and stays in place (dwells within the veins) for days or weeks.

A nephrostomy is an artificial opening created between the kidney and the skin which allows for the urinary diversion directly from the upper part of the urinary system (renal pelvis). An nephrostomy is a related procedure performed more distally along the urinary system to provide urinary diversion. A catheter is placed through the opening to allow for excretion of urine and drainage into a urine bag.



A choloangiogram is a special x-ray procedure that is done with contrast media to visualize the bile ducts after the a cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder). The bile ducts drain bile from the liver into the duodenum (first part of the small bowel).

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Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC)

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is a simple, quick and inexpensive method that is used to sample superficial masses like those found in the neck and is usually performed in the outpatient clinic. It causes minimal trauma to the patient and carries virtually no risk of complications. Masses located within the region of the head and neck, including salivary gland and thyroid gland lesions can be readily diagnosed using this technique.

Assorted Biopsies
  • Needle biopsy. Most biopsies are needle biopsies, meaning a needle is used to access the suspicious tissue.


  • CT-guided biopsy. A person rests in a CT-scanner; the scanner’s images help doctors determine the exact position of the needle in the targeted tissue.


  • Ultrasound-guided biopsy. An ultrasound scanner helps a doctor direct the needle into the lesion.


  • Bone biopsy. A bone biopsy is used to look for cancer of the bones. This may be performed via the CT scan technique or by an orthopedic surgeon.


  • Liver biopsy. A needle is injected into the liver through the skin on the belly, capturing liver tissue.


  • Kidney biopsy . Similar to a liver biopsy, a needle is injected through the skin on the back, into the kidney.


  • Aspiration biopsy. A needle withdraws material out of a mass. This simple procedure is also called fine-needle aspiration.

A fluid aspiration and drainage is a medical procedure in which a needle is passed through the skin, using image guidance (CT scan/X-ray/Ultrasound), into an abnormal fluid collection in order to remove the fluid. Some patients have all their fluid drained at one time or just a sample taken. Other patients are discharged with a drainage catheter in place.

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Selective Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)

Typically performed by a radiologist in a hospital setting and without anesthesia. A device is placed on the cervix and dye is injected into the uterus
under pressure. This causes the dye to fill the cavity of the uterus and then, ideally, flow into and through the fallopian tubes, spilling out the end of the tubes into the pelvis. The dye can be seen on x-ray, which is used to monitor the procedure.


Restoration of a lumen in a blood vessel following thrombotic occlusion, by organization of the thrombus with formation of new channels.

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A lumbar puncture (also called a spinal tap) is a procedure to collect and look at the fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

During a lumbar puncture, a needle is carefully inserted into the spinal canal low in the back (lumbar area). Samples of CSF are collected. The samples are studied for color, blood cell counts, protein, glucose, and other substances. Some of the sample may be put into a container with a growth substance. This is called a culture. If any bacteria or fungi grow in the culture, an infection may be present. The pressure of the CSF also is measured during the procedure.

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Sclerotherapy is a procedure used to treat blood vessels or blood vessel malformations (vascular malformations) and also those of the lymphatic system. A medicine is injected into the vessels, which makes them shrink. It is used for children and young adults with vascular or lymphatic malformations. In adults, sclerotherapy is often used to treat spider veins, smaller varicose veins, hemorrhoids and hydroceles.

Sclerotherapy is one method for the treatment of spider veins, occasionally varicose veins, and venous malformations. In ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy, ultrasound is used to visualize the underlying vein so the physician can deliver and monitor the injection. Sclerotherapy often takes place under ultrasound guidance after venous abnormalities have been diagnosed with duplex ultrasound. Sclerotherapy under ultrasound guidance and using microfoam sclerosants has been shown to be effective in controlling reflux from the sapheno-femoral and sapheno-popliteal junctions. However, some authors believe that sclerotherapy is not suitable for veins with reflux from the greater or lesser saphenous junction, or for veins with axial reflux.

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IVC Filter

An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a small device that can stop blood clots from going up into the lungs. The inferior vena cava is a large vein in the middle of your body.

An IVC filter is one method to help prevent pulmonary embolism. Your inferior vena cava (IVC) is the major vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower body back to the heart. The heart then pumps the blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen. An IVC filter is a small, wiry device. When the filter is placed in your IVC, the blood flows past the filter. The filter catches blood clots and stops them from moving up to the heart and lungs. This helps to prevent a pulmonary embolism.

The IVC filter is placed through a small incision in a vein in your groin or neck. A thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into this vein. The catheter is then gently moved into your IVC. A collapsed IVC filter is sent with the catheter. The filter is left in place, and the catheter is removed. The filter then expands and attaches itself to the walls of the IVC. It may be left in place permanently. In some cases, it may be removed after a period of time.

Hookwire Localization

Mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan images or pictures sometimes show abnormalities in the breast that cannot be felt by a doctor. If the abnormality is to be surgically removed, it is necessary to place a fine wire, called a hookwire, in the breast with its tip at the site of the abnormality. This acts as a marker during surgery and enables the surgeon to remove the correct area of breast tissue.

The hookwire is inserted to guide the removal of both benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous) abnormalities. Mammography, ultrasound or MRI scans are used by a radiologist (specialist doctor) to place the hookwire into the correct position. The wire is called a hookwire because there is a tiny hook at the end, which keeps it in position.

Breast hookwire localisation is done using local anaesthetic to numb the breast in the area where the hookwire is to be inserted.

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